7 Helpful Difference Between Lower House and Upper House

Nov 20, 2023
Why Is Difference Between Lower House and Upper House

Lower House and Upper House: Differences between the Lower House and Upper House are an issue plaguing countries with democratic systems of government since bicameralism is common practice within any democracy. Bicameral parliaments refer to those which contain two chambers within one parliament – typically known as Upper and Lower Houses – with separate functions and membership.

Both the US and India feature bicameral legislatures. India has two houses of parliament known as Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha while in the US they are known as the Senate and House of Representatives; together these make up Congress. Both bodies differ in how they function as well as which powers they exercise across democratic societies worldwide – this article attempts to address those differences more fully.

Lower house

Lower house
Fig-no-1: Lower house

General, it is the Lower House that is directly elected by its people; that is, members of this chamber are elected via adult voting. Lower House is larger than Upper House members and their decisions can have immediate effects; most lower house votes must support any bill before being sent on to Upper House for consideration.

Lower house members in different countries use different terminology when referring to themselves – in the US this refers to the House of Representatives; India uses Lok Sabha while the UK uses House of Commons etc.

Upper House

Upper House
Fig-no-02: Upper House

Members of the Upper House are selected by political parties and typically comprise influential, wealthy or extraordinary success figures in various fields. An Upper House or Senate (in the US) serves to serve as a stabilizing force.

Senators were not elected directly by voters, but were instead chosen by legislators and were expected to bring wisdom, experience, and expertise into the operation of their legislative body.

India’s Rajya Sabha comprises writers, economists, sociologists, literary figures, and all manner of people recognized for being successful. Upper House lawmakers require their collective knowledge and expertise in order to review bills quickly drafted by members of the Lower House, so any bill passed through either chamber does not go into effect until approved by both houses.

Some consider the Upper House an unnecessary waste of time since its existence makes passing resolutions increasingly complex and tiresome. Others, however, see it as vitally important in democratic systems because the Upper House serves as a system of checks and balances, stopping any law passed in haste by members of the Lower House from becoming law for an entire nation.

Many countries utilize various terms to refer to different components of an Upper House. In the USA, for instance, this body is known as the Senate while India refers to their Upper House as Rajya Sabha, and in Britain, they refer to it as the House of Lords.

What are the differences between the Lower House and the Upper House?

Democracies typically adopt bicameral legislatures. Each chamber consists of an Upper House and Lower House which vary significantly in their composition.

In contrast to Lower House members who are directly elected by voters, Upper House members are selected by state legislators and sent directly to Congress as members of their legislative bodies at a federal level.

House of Representatives serves as an important safeguard in any democratic system.

Relations between these two houses of democracy across the globe differ according to local conventions and requirements for government systems. Sometimes the Upper House may be more powerful than the Lower House while at other times they can both hold equal sway.

For any bill to pass, it must first obtain majority support in both houses of parliament; once this happens, it will go forward to be reviewed by both upper houses; if passed there as well, and approved there too, then it will proceed onward to reach the Head of State for signature.


The lower house was intended to represent its residents while the upper one could represent different states or regions within a nation. Therefore, its composition tends to be more varied while in comparison, the latter might be more homogeneous.


The lower house typically possesses greater legislative authority than its higher counterpart. This is because this chamber is responsible for passing laws affecting all of society, while higher house members typically only review legislation approved by lower houses before making final approval decisions on it.

House members in the lower chamber are usually elected for set terms; those elected in the upper chamber could potentially serve their entire lives or until leaving or retirement, making lower houses more likely to experience turnover, which enables them to adapt more readily to changing needs and views from citizens.

At an Appointment or Election

Members of the lower house are usually elected directly by citizens in a country, while upper house representatives can either be chosen directly by states or regions they represent, giving more power and accountability to citizens than to states and regions in terms of political issues.

As a result, members of the lower chamber tend to be more accountable to constituents while representatives in the upper chamber may be subject to influence by state and regional political issues.

Governance | Roles in Government

The lower house is often seen as the more significant of the two chambers since it holds more legislative power and must pass laws that affect the entire country. Meanwhile, the upper chamber may serve an advisory function by offering advice about legislation approved through its lower chamber counterpart.


The difference between the lower and upper houses lies in their respective representation, power and terms of selection/election processes as well as roles they play within government. Recognizing these distinctions will help us better comprehend how a nation operates its government system.